A Comprehensive Guide to Physiotherapy Techniques and Specialisations

If an injury, illness, or just the aches and pains of everyday life have you struggling to move freely, physiotherapy can help get you back in motion. These movement health experts empower people of all ages to overcome mobility challenges and live life fully using proven hands-on techniques and custom exercise programs.

Physiotherapists, or physios for short, are highly trained professionals with a toolbox packed with ways to decrease pain, restore strength and range of motion, and boost confidence for returning to daily and recreational activities. Whether you’re dealing with chronic back or neck pain, a sport-related knee or ankle injury, or nagging shoulder, wrist or elbow issues, musculoskeletal physios have the skills to get you moving better.

After a thorough assessment pinpointing the root causes of your pain and movement limitations, your physio will design a treatment plan tailored to your unique needs and goals. From massage and hands-on joint mobilisation to relieve tight, stiff joints to active exercise therapy for strengthening muscles and fine-tuning motor control, they pull out all the stops to help you feel your best.


In this article, we’ll give you the complete lowdown on how physiotherapy can help with common musculoskeletal problems affecting different body parts from head to toe. You’ll learn how physiotherapy can get you moving how you want and need to – whether performing daily activities pain-free, excelling at your favourite sport, or simply playing with kids and grandkids.

Understanding Back Pain and How Physiotherapy Can Help

Back pain can be a debilitating issue that affects people of all ages and can originate from various sources, including poor posture, muscle strains, herniated or slipped discs, arthritis, and degenerative disc disease. Amidst the array of available treatment options, physiotherapy has emerged as a highly effective approach for treating and preventing back pain. 

The Role of Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy is a healthcare discipline that employs physical techniques to address injuries, enhance mobility, and alleviate pain. Concerning back pain, physiotherapists assume a crucial role in assisting patients in reclaiming their strength, flexibility, and functionality. They meticulously craft personalised treatment plans tailored to each individual’s unique needs and aspirations. These comprehensive plans often blend targeted exercises, manual therapy, educational guidance, and lifestyle adjustments.

Education and Lifestyle Modifications

Beyond exercises and manual therapy, the role of physiotherapists extends to patient education on the nuances of proper body mechanics, ergonomics, and posture. Patients are enlightened about the art of averting future episodes of back pain through necessary modifications in their daily routines and work environments. This educational facet empowers individuals, placing them in an active role in their recovery journey, and enabling them to make informed choices to ward off future complications.

Preventing Back Pain

Physiotherapy’s contribution isn’t limited to treating back pain; it is equally pivotal in its prevention. Physiotherapists meticulously assess an individual’s movement patterns, posture, and lifestyle factors to identify potential triggers for back pain. Through personalised exercise programs, education, and ergonomic counsel, physiotherapy guides individuals in cultivating healthy habits and maintaining optimal spinal health. By addressing the root causes and instilling necessary lifestyle changes, individuals can significantly curtail their susceptibility to experiencing back pain.

Exercise Therapy with Clinical Pilates

Strengthening Your Foundation

The main culprits behind back discomfort often include muscle imbalances and poor posture. Fortunately, exercise therapy is a highly effective approach to address these issues. At Core Fitness, your physiotherapist will guide you through a tailored exercise regimen utilising Clinical Pilates to reduce discomfort and prevent further deterioration. Clinical Pilates builds core strength by targeting the deep abdominal and back muscles, stabilising the spine to relieve pressure and strain. The controlled motions of Clinical Pilates also improve flexibility and range of motion, particularly in the hips and spine, allowing for greater ease of movement and less discomfort.  

Exercise therapy not only eases pain but also promotes long-term spinal health. It strengthens the muscles supporting your back, enhancing stability and reducing the likelihood of future issues. Clinical Pilates targets the deep muscles of the core to improve posture and align the spine. Remember, consistency is key- follow your physiotherapist’s recommendations diligently, and your back will thank you. 

Manual Therapy

Hands-On Healing

Manual therapy is a hands-on treatment approach that can work wonders for managing lower back pain. Skilled manipulation and mobilisation of the spine, muscles, and joints are employed to improve the range of motion, reduce pain, and restore function. Here are some common techniques you might encounter:

  • Spinal Manipulation: Your physiotherapist will use precise thrusts to realign spinal vertebrae, relieving discomfort and improving mobility.
  • Soft Tissue Mobilisation: This technique targets tight muscles and fascia, alleviating tension and promoting blood flow for better healing.
  • Joint Mobilisation: Gentle movements are applied to specific joints, enhancing their range of motion and reducing stiffness. 

Manual therapy sessions are often a source of immediate relief. Regular sessions can help you maintain long-term back health, and your physiotherapist will determine the most suitable techniques for your unique condition.


Improving Shoulder Instability with Physiotherapy

Our shoulders provide incredible mobility, allowing us to reach, lift, and rotate our arms in many directions. However, this also makes the shoulder prone to overuse injuries and instability. Common conditions like frozen shoulder, rotator cuff tears, dislocations, and impingement can severely restrict shoulder instability. 

Shoulder instability, characterised by excessive movement within the shoulder joint, can lead to discomfort, weakness, and a looming fear of dislocation. While it can arise from trauma or dislocation, some experience chronic instability due to weakened ligaments or muscles. In the realm of treatment, physical therapy emerges as a cornerstone, aiming to reinstate stability, bolster strength, and optimise overall shoulder function. 

Causes and Symptoms

Shoulder instability can stem from diverse factors, ranging from traumatic injuries and repetitive overhead motions to muscle imbalances and congenital conditions. The most prevalent form is anterior instability, characterised by the propensity for the shoulder to dislocate or subluxate forward.

Signs of shoulder instability encompass:

  • Recurrent dislocations or subluxations
  • A sensation of looseness or instability within the shoulder joint
  • Discomfort or pain during shoulder movements or when lifting objects
  • Reduced strength in the affected shoulder
  • Restricted range of motion, often coupled with challenges in day-to-day activities

Physical Therapy Intervention for Shoulder Instability

Initial Assessment and Tailored Treatment Plan:

Upon consulting a physical therapist for shoulder instability, a thorough evaluation will be conducted to gauge the affected shoulder’s strength, range of motion, and functional capabilities. This assessment forms the foundation for crafting a personalised treatment regimen tailored to your unique requirements.

Manual Therapy:

Incorporating techniques like joint mobilisations, soft tissue mobilisations, and muscle energy methods, manual therapy targets joint rigidity, muscle tension, and the restoration of normal shoulder mechanics. These interventions serve to enhance shoulder mobility, diminish pain, and optimise overall functionality.

Strength-Building Exercises:

A pivotal facet of shoulder instability rehabilitation revolves around fortifying the musculature surrounding the shoulder joint. Your physical therapist will prescribe specialised exercises targeting the rotator cuff muscles, scapular stabilisers, and other adjacent muscles. These may encompass resistance band routines, dumbbell exercises, and bodyweight workouts. The emphasis lies in systematically enhancing muscle strength and command to heighten stability and thwart potential instances of instability.

Range of Motion and Flexibility Routines:

Physical therapists may integrate targeted stretching and range of motion exercises to alleviate shoulder stiffness and overcome movement limitations. These endeavours are geared towards reestablishing optimal range of motion, mitigating muscle imbalances, and augmenting overall shoulder function.

Functional Rehabilitation:

As your shoulder strength and stability progress, the treatment plan will evolve to encompass functional exercises replicating everyday activities or movements specific to your chosen sport. This phase strives to facilitate a secure return to normal activities while upholding shoulder stability and averting future bouts of instability.

Education and Home Exercise Program:

Throughout your journey in physical therapy, your therapist will impart knowledge about shoulder anatomy, proper biomechanics, and strategies to forestall future instances of instability. Furthermore, a customised home exercise regimen will be provided, enabling you to sustain you progress beyond therapy sessions.

Easing Neck Pain through Physiotherapy 

Neck pain, a prevalent discomfort affecting the lower region of the head and extending to the shoulders and neck, can arise from various factors such as poor posture, physical injury, or even suboptimal sleeping positions. Prolonged positioning, like hunching over phones or computers, can strain neck muscles and restrict mobility over time

While many cases of neck pain naturally subside, chronic conditions like osteoarthritis or herniated discs necessitate dedicated medical intervention. Physiotherapy is a pivotal tool in alleviating pain, relaxing muscles, and expediting recovery.

Goals of Physiotherapy for Neck Pain:

Given the potential for neck pain to impede daily activities and worsen over time without appropriate care, the objectives of physiotherapy are clear-cut. This multifaceted approach aims to diminish discomfort, enhance neck and head mobility, and fortify muscular strength, all while ensuring that treatments do not exacerbate existing conditions.

Instances Warranting Physical Therapy:

In instances where at-home stretches and exercises prove insufficient, physiotherapy steps in as an essential solution for several scenarios:

  • Unspecified Chronic Pain: When persistent, recurring neck pain lacks an identifiable cause, engaging in physiotherapy becomes instrumental in augmenting muscle strength.
  • Injury Recovery: A structured physiotherapy regimen is paramount during recuperation following neck-related injuries. Various physiotherapy modalities effectively address soft tissue injuries.
  • Post-Surgical Rehabilitation: Post-operative physiotherapy facilitates a seamless transition from surgery-induced discomfort to improved neck mobility, ensuring a smoother recovery trajectory.

Time to Exercise Caution:

While physiotherapy predominantly enhances mobility and mitigates neck pain, incorrect implementation can lead to further injuries. Exercising prudence in the following scenarios is imperative:

  • Spinal Instability: Individuals experiencing significant spinal and neck instability due to factors like severe injury or intense pain are advised to refrain from physiotherapy, as it may exacerbate existing conditions.
  • Underlying Medical Conditions: Conditions such as tumours or infections necessitate careful consideration before embarking on physiotherapy, as physical activities may exacerbate these underlying health issues.

Physiotherapeutic Interventions:

Physiotherapy treatment of neck pain typically involves two primary methods: passive and active physiotherapy.

Passive physiotherapy encompasses treatments where patients are not actively engaged in exercises. Modalities such as ice packs, heat therapy, and electrotherapy are employed to reduce pain and inflammation in the neck region.

Active physiotherapy requires patients to actively participate in their healing process through prescribed exercises and stretches. These activities are designed to enhance movement and flexibility in the neck region.

Key Neck Stretches and Exercises:

  • Corner Stretch: A simple home exercise that targets chest and shoulder muscles. Stand two feet from a corner, face it, and place your hands on either side. Lean in gently and hold for 30 seconds, repeating as comfortable.
  • Levator Scapulae Stretch: A movement to improve mobility in the levator scapulae muscles. Stand with elbows against a door jamb, creating a stretch. Gently move your head from side to side and up and down.

Physiotherapists employ a variety of hands-on techniques to address neck pain and stiffness: 

  • Manual therapy like massage and joint mobilisation to improve flexibility and reduce muscle spasm
  • Targeted exercises for neck muscle strengthening and postural improvement
  • Traction techniques to decrease pressure on compressed nerves
  • Modalities like low-level laser and ultrasound for pain relief

Specific neck exercises prescribed by physiotherapists can also help strengthen muscles and improve posture. Some of the common exercises include: 

  • Foam roller “T” and “Y” exercises to strengthen the upper back and improve posture
  • Slow neck rolls and shoulder rolls to increase neck mobility
  • Seated neck stretches such as chin tucks and lateral flexion stretches
  • Prone rowing exercises using bands or weights to target neck extensor muscles
  • Band doorknob rows to strengthen muscles between the neck and shoulders


For whiplash injuries caused by sudden distortion like a car accident, physiotherapy focuses first on managing pain and muscle spasms. Gentle soft tissue mobilisation eases muscle tension, while modalities like heat or ice provide pain relief. Once acute symptoms improve, exercises commence to strengthen the neck muscles, improve posture, and increase range of motion.

The physiotherapist tailors the techniques and exercise programs throughout rehabilitation based on the individual’s specific injury, symptoms, and goals. The aim is to relieve stiffness and pain in the neck while restoring normal mobility, strength, and function. This allows patients to move their head and neck comfortably without restriction.

Treating Lower Body Injuries with Physiotherapy

Musculoskeletal physiotherapists frequently treat various injuries and conditions affecting the lower limbs, including ankle sprains and knee pain caused by osteoarthritis, ACL/MCL tears, patellofemoral pain syndrome, and runner’s knee. 

Ankle Sprains

Ankle sprains commonly involve stretching or tearing the ligaments supporting the ankle joint. This leads to instability, swelling, bruising and point tenderness. Physiotherapy treatment consists of:

  • RICE regimen (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) to limit swelling and pain.
  • Gentle range of motion exercises to restore mobility once acute symptoms subside.
  • Proprioceptive training using balance boards and foam pads to improve stability.
  • Taping or bracing to restrict excessive inversion/eversion mechanically.
  • Joint mobilizations and soft tissue massage to improve flexibility and reduce swelling.
  • Progressive strengthening exercises targeting the ankle stabilisers. 

Knee Pain

Various factors, including injuries, mechanical problems, arthritis, and other medical conditions, can cause knee pain.   

  • Physiotherapy can help manage knee pain caused by various conditions, including osteoarthritis, ACL/MCL tears, patellofemoral pain syndrome, and a runner’s knee.
  • Treatment options may include exercise, activity modification, assistive devices, thermal modalities for pain relief, bracing or taping, joint mobilisations and soft tissue massage to improve flexibility and reduce swelling.
  • Physiotherapists may also use progressive strengthening exercises targeting the knee stabilisers, proprioceptive training using balance boards and foam pads to improve stability, and gait retraining to treat overuse injuries in runners.
  • The treatment plan is customised based on the patient’s specific condition and needs to help them manage pain, restore function, and resume regular activities. 

Additional Physiotherapy Services

In addition to musculoskeletal conditions, physiotherapy offers a wide range of services beyond musculoskeletal conditions. Physiotherapists possess specialised skills in managing various other disorders, including neurological conditions, cardiopulmonary disorders, women’s health, rehabilitation pilates, rolfing structural integration, and scoliosis bracing and exercise.

Women’s Health

Women’s health physiotherapists address issues like incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, prenatal/postpartum musculoskeletal pain, and problems resulting from gynaecological conditions through exercise, education, manual therapy, electrotherapy and more. The goal is to improve quality of life and empower women to take control of their health.

Rehabilitation Pilates

Rehab Pilates is a specialised form of pilates exercise taught by specially trained physiotherapists. It targets imbalances, postural dysfunction, core weakness and muscle imbalances. The focus is on spinal stabilisation, muscle balance, control, endurance and coordination to improve function.

Rolfing structural integration

Rolfing aims to relieve chronic muscle tension by therapeutic manipulation of soft tissues and fascia. Certified Rolfing physiotherapists use this technique to address back pain, restricted flexibility and poor posture by releasing tension, aligning the body, and integrating movement patterns.

Scoliosis Management

Physiotherapists can manage nonsurgical scoliosis through customised bracing, scoliosis-specific stabilisation, and corrective exercises. These techniques aim to improve posture, strength, core stability and flexibility in mild to moderate scoliosis.


Musculoskeletal physiotherapy utilises various manual therapy techniques and prescription exercises to effectively treat orthopaedic injuries, pain conditions, and mobility impairments affecting the back, neck, shoulders, knees, ankles and other body areas. Treatment is customised to each individual’s needs to reduce pain, restore joint range of motion and muscle function, and prevent re-injury.

At Core Fitness, our experienced physiotherapists provide personalised, evidence-based rehabilitation for a wide variety of musculoskeletal problems. We also offer services for neurological, cardiopulmonary, women’s health and other conditions. Our holistic approach focuses on enabling clients to participate fully in activities of daily living and sports they enjoy through improved strength, mobility and quality of life.

We hope this guide provides a helpful overview of how physiotherapy can help you recover from sports injury or manage chronic musculoskeletal conditions. Contact Core Fitness today to see how our skilled physiotherapists can get you moving comfortably again.